Patients with cirrhosis can develop major complications such as ascites and variceal bleeding, related to portal hypertension.
A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can be an effective means to decrease portal hypertension, by shunting some of the blood flow from the portal venous system into the hepatic venous system, via a stent.
Placement of a TIPS is a highly specialized interventional procedure, and should only be considered after consultation with a liver specialist.
See the ALTA consensus guidelines (PMID 34274511) for an in-depth review of TIPS in portal hypertension.
-For elective TIPS for ascites, a staged approach to TIPS creation is suggested – starting at 8 mm and then progressively dilating the stent q 6 weekly to 9 mm and 10 mm if required to optimize the clinical response.
Evaluate the indication for TIPS
- Bleeding related to portal hypertension
- Refractory ascites/hydrothorax
Consider potential contraindications and risk for complications
- Severe Congestive Heart Failure
- Severe untreated valvular heart disease
- Moderate to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension
- Refractory overt Hepatic encephalopathy
- Active infection
- Hepatocellular Carcinoma (location dependant)
- Unrelieved Biliary Obstruction
- Multiple Hepatic Cysts that preclude stent creation
Risk Factors Associated with Post-TIPS Complications:
|Liver Failure||Advanced Liver Disease (MELD >18)
Wider diameter TIPS
|Cardiac Decompensation||Aortic stenosis
Prolonged QTc interval
|Mortality||Child Pugh C
Urgent indication (variceal bleed)
Bilirubin >50 umol/L
Child Pugh score >13, or MELD score >30 and lactate >12 mmol/L (PMID 34018627)
Pre-insertion consult by an interventional radiologist should be considered in all circumstances, but especially these
Perform pre-TIPS investigations
- Liver Ultrasound Doppler: Evaluate liver vasculature, rule out hepatocellular carcinoma. In most cases CT may be required pre-TIPS insertion.
- Labs: TBili, INR, Cr, CBC, BNP
Provide pre-placement patient counselling
- Patients will require short post-procedure hospital admission
- Risk of hepatic encephalopathy (30-45%). Treat using standard hepatic encephalopathy therapy. For patients who do not respond to standard therapy – consideration should be given to narrowing or blocking the TIPS. This decision will be based on the severity of symptoms and the potential impact on the patient’s quality of life
- It can take weeks for symptoms like ascites to resolve so patients may require alternate therapy (such paracentesis for ascites) in the initial period post-TIPS
- Liver failure is rare but can occur, particularly if there is advanced liver dysfunction pre-procedure.
- Immediate procedural complications (vascular injury, pneumothorax, hepatic injury) are discussed in detail by diagnostic imaging.
Info for liver specialists to arrange the TIPS procedure
- Send referral to interventional radiology for “TIPS insertion”
- Provide patient instructions regarding admission and pre procedure labs
- Ensure admission is coordinated, including notification of admitting physician and completion of admission orders.
|Labs||Monitor for worsening liver & renal function, electrolyte abnormalities, hemolytic anemia||Day 1, Week 4, 8 & 12, then based on patient clinical status|
|Symptom assessment |
|Common complication post TIPS||Day 1, Week 4, 8 & 12, then based on patient clinical status.
|•Ascites/hydrothorax||Monitor response to TIPS
Evaluate potential to taper off diuretics as TIPS improves volume management
|•Edema, shortness of breath||Monitor for cardiac decompensation|
|•Blood pressure and heart rate||Evaluate need to discontinue beta blocker used for variceal bleed prophylaxis (might need to continue if PPG post TIPS is > 12 mmHg)|
|•GI bleeding||Monitor response to TIPS|
|Ultrasound Doppler||Detect TIPS stenosis||Month 1-3, 6, and then every 6 months along with routine screening ultrasound performed for hepatocellular carcinoma screening.|